Gettysburg tablets of the cast iron variety

Did you know that, despite what MapQuest says, the road that runs along the northern edge of the Pennsylvania State Memorial is NOT Pleasanton Avenue?

Did you know that part of Wheatfield Road is labelled by the National Park Service as “McGilvery Artillery Avenue?”

And did you know that the NPS doesn’t officially recognize a place called Pitzer’s Woods? Or Spangler’s Woods? Or Barlow’s Knoll??

Do I have your attention now? :)

The explanation for all of these things can be found on the National Park Service tablets around the Park.

The Gettysburg National Military Park has more than 230 bronze tablets which identify the brigades, divisions, corps, U.S. regular units, and hospitals from the two armies.  It also has more than 30 cast iron itinerary tablets and those marking the positions of artillery units.  All of these tablets (as well as more traditional monuments, of course), along with their inscriptions, photos, and locations, are in our popular smartphone app, Pocket Gettysburg.

But there are 80 other cast iron tablets around the Park1 which get less attention and aren’t typically considered “monuments.” The NPS is nonetheless responsible for their maintenance and preservation.

With one exception,2 these additional tablets were installed by the NPS’ predecessor, the U.S. War Department, in the years 1896-1920.  (Yes, tablets were cast-iron a hundred years before iPads were cool.) Most of them fall into three categories which the NPS calls “Site ID Tablets,” “Avenue Tablets,” and “Information Tablets.” You’ll find them all listed below.

(click to enlarge)

(click to enlarge)

So what happened to “Pleasanton Avenue”?  Well, if you’re a Gettysburg nerd like me, you probably don’t have to look at the Park’s tablets to know that the General’s name was Alfred Pleasonton (not PleasAnton) and the name of the road is therefore Pleasonton Avenue.  But MapQuest isn’t the only one to make this mistake.  There are four monuments on the Park that spell his name wrong too!  And three of them are on the street that is named after him. The four monuments are:

  1. the Second Division, Cavalry Corps monument on the South side of Cavalry Field Road
  2. the Cavalry Corps monument on Pleasonton Avenue
  3. the monument to Batteries B & L, Second U.S. Artillery where Pleasonton Avenue meets Taneytown Road, and
  4. the Sixth Ohio Cavalry monument at the same intersection.

(For extra credit, there’s another marker at the corner of King and Queen Streets in Littlestown which spells the General’s name wrong … twice!)

The avenue that doesn't exist.

The avenue that doesn't exist?

So where the heck is “McGilvery Artillery Avenue?” Nobody seems to really know. But there’s a Park tablet for it on Wheatfield Road in the pull-off area by the Peach Orchard. John Heiser, historian for the GNMP, says that the original location of that tablet is no longer known. According to the Park Service’s official database (aka the List of Classified Structures3), it was originally installed in the Park between 1896 and 1920, removed for an unknown reason around 1974-1975, and restored in its current position in 1992. Col Freeman McGilvery ordered the famous artillery stand in the area of the Peach Orchard but, John says, the objective was to respect and preserve the tablet as an original U.S. War Department structure (and therefore a kind of historical document in itself) without any real intent to make a statement about the location of the “avenue.”

Something has been deleted here.

Something has been deleted here.

OK, but you’ve heard of Pitzer’s Woods, right?  Well, take a look at the Park’s tablet there. It says “Pitzer Woods”; it’s not possessive. In case you think that’s a mistake, the List of Classified Structures calls it Pitzer Woods too, not Pitzer’s.  In fact, look even closer at the tablet and you’ll see that, while it was originally cast to say “Pitzer’s Woods,” the Park Service has carefully painted over the apostrophe and “S” to correct the mistake. Likewise for Spangler Woods. Apparently, somebody else cares about this minutia too.
…and here.

…and here.


Similarly, it is Barlow Knoll, not Barlow’s.  Yikes!  That doesn’t exactly roll off the tongue.  But don’t take my word for it. Go look at the tablet. Or the database.

Don’t even get me started on Calvary!  That’s yet another knoll - but outside Jerusalem.  The horse soldiers are c-a-v-a-l-r-y, notwithstanding the embarrassing spelling on this Gettysburg-related monument in Lemoyne, PA, among others.

Now I admit that some of this topic is just silliness that some will respond to by saying, “Who cares?!” But I find it entertaining to discovery these little stories and details about the Park that are missed by most visitors. Isn’t that why we keep researching, talking, and learning about Gettysburg?

Some day I’ll make a blog post about the many other misspellings that I’ve found on the Park monuments, including the names of at least three Medal of Honor recipients.

Oh, and if you’re a stickler for pronunciation, check out this cool video from Garry Adelman for the Civil War Trust.

OK, so following are the lists that I promised.

-Bob Velke

Site ID Tablets
20th Maine Stone Wall Barlow Knoll
Biesecker Woods Black Horse Tavern
Brian House Codori House
Culp’s Hill Devil’s Den
East Cemetery Hill Excelsior Field
G. Weikert House Klingel House
Little Round Top McMillan House
McMillan Woods Menchey’s Spring
Oak Ridge Peach Orchard (2)
Pitzer Woods Reynolds Woods
Rodes’ Division Wall Rogers House
Sherfy House Shultz House
Shultz Woods Spangler House
Spangler Woods Spangler’s Spring
Stevens Knoll The Angle
The Loop Trostle House
Wentz House Wheatfield (2)
Ziegler’s Grove  

Avenue Tablets
Ayres Avenue (2) Berdan Avenue
Birney Avenue (2) Brooke Avenue (2)
Buford Avenue (2) Carman Avenue
Colgrove Avenue Confederate Avenue (2)
Confederate Cavalry Ave Coster Avenue
Crawford Avenue (2) Cross Avenue (2)
Custer Avenue DeTrobriand Avenue (2)
Doubleday Avenue (2) Geary Avenue
Gregg Avenue Hancock Avenue (2)
Howard Avenue (2) Howe Avenue
Humphreys Avenue (2) Hunt Avenue (2)
McGilvery Artillery Ave. Meredith Avenue (2)
Neill Avenue Pleasonton Avenue (2)
Reynolds Avenue (2) Robinson Avenue
Sickles Avenue (2) Slocum Avenue (2)
Sykes Avenue (2) Taneytown Road
United States Avenue (2) Wadsworth Avenue
Wainwright Avenue Warren Avenue (2)
Williams Avenue (2) Wright Avenue

Information Tablets
1st and 2nd Cavalry Units 1st US Sharpshooters
5 NY Cav. & Bat. E (2) Berdan Avenue
US Cav. & Bat. K 1st  

Other Tablets
(in the National Cemetery)
Act of Congress Tablets (2) American Legion Tablet

NOTES

1 There are 106 if you count duplicates. But the NPS considers the two naming tablets on either end of Hunt Avenue, for instance, to be one “structure.”

2 The American Legion tablet in the Soldiers’ National Cemetery was installed in 1955.

3 The link is correct but the site is often down.  So if it doesn’t work, then wait a bit and try again.



Attendance Figures for 1913 and 1938 Gettysburg Reunions

For those who may be interested, these are the attendance figures for the 1913 (50th) and 1938 (75th) veterans reunions at Gettysburg as published in the official reports of the Pennsylvania Commission:


Attendance at Gettysburg Reunions
1913 1938
(50th Anniversary) (75th Anniversary)
Residence # Union+Conf. # Union+Conf.
Alabama 200 (0+200) 26 (6+20)
Arizona 10 (7+3) 6 (4+2)
Arkansas 75 (50+25) 51 (19+32)
California 100 (90+10) 150 (145+5)
Colorado 12 (11+1) 26 (23+3)
Connecticut 350 (350+0) 8 (8+0)
Delaware 316 (303+13) 2 (2+0)
District of Columbia 485 (380+105) 4 (1+3)
Florida 150 (0+150) 48 (29+19)
Georgia 285 (35+250) 60 (7+53)
Idaho 45 (45+0) 8 (7+1)
Illinois 465 (450+15) 95 (95+0)
Indiana 565 (540+25) 89 (87+2)
Iowa 364 (360+4) 46 (46+0)
Kansas 130 (125+5) 69 (64+5)
Kentucky 100 (75+25) 28 (21+7)
Louisiana 125 (0+125) 27 (10+17)
Maine 543 (540+3) 14 (14+0)
Maryland 1080 (800+280) 22 (21+1)
Massachusetts 1700 (1600+100) 23 (23+0)
Michigan 844 (830+14) 54 (54+0)
Minnesota 422 (400+22) 30 (30+0)
Mississippi 120 (0+120) 41 (6+35)
Missouri 422 (250+172) 79 (70+9)
Montana 22 (14+8) 7 (5+2)
Nebraska 238 (230+8) 26 (24+2)
Nevada 0 (0+0) 1 (1+0)
New Hampshire 750 (740+10) 7 (7+0)
New Jersey 2909 (2800+109) 23 (23+0)
New Mexico 1 (1+0) 5 (4+1)
New York 8500 (8440+60) 80 (80+0)
North Carolina 1265 (0+1265) 38 (2+36)
North Dakota 165 (162+3) 2 (1+1)
Ohio 1000 (900+100) 103 (102+1)
Oklahoma 135 (87+48) 63 (32+31)
Oregon 82 (75+7) 26 (25+1)
Pennsylvania 22103 (21800+303) 115 (115+0)
Rhode Island 377 (370+7) 0 (0+0)
South Carolina 369 (68+301) 19 (1+18)
South Dakota 125 (121+4) 14 (14+0)
Tennessee 300 (0+300) 31 (15+16)
Texas 130 (0+130) 130 (13+117)
Utah 76 (67+9) 5 (5+0)
Vermont 669 (665+4) 5 (5+0)
Veteran Signal Corps 63 (63+0) 0 (0+0)
Virginia 3278 (50+3228) 46 (7+39)
Washington 167 (152+15) 37 (34+3)
West Virginia 1125 (562+563) 21 (12+9)
Wisconsin 650 (625+25) 31 (31+0)
Wyoming 0 (0+0) 1 (1+0)
Canada 0 (0+0) 3 (3+0)
TOTAL: 53407 (45233+8174) 1845 (1354+491)

Note that the official attendance figures are based on the residence of each veteran in 1913 and 1938 - not on the State from which they served during the war. But the numbers in parentheses further break it down to show how many had fought for the Union vs. Confederate armies.

So while 285 veterans travelled from Georgia for the 1913 reunion, 35 of them had fought for the Union army.

Some other interesting observations:

  • It is not surprising that Confederate veterans were greatly outnumbered at both reunions since they were commemorating the anniversary of a Confederate loss in “Northern” territory.  But while Confederate veterans represented 15.3% (8174/53407) of the attending veterans in 1913, that number jumped to 26.6% (491/1845) in 1938.
  • Of the 48 States that existed at the time, all but Nevada and Wyoming were represented in 1913 and all but Rhode Island were represented in 1938.
  • The two States with the highest number of veterans attending the 1913 reunion were Pennsylvania (22103 veterans or 41.3%) and New York (8500 veterans or 15.9%). But in 1938, the two States with the highest attendance were California (150 veterans or 8.1%) and Texas (130 veterans or 7.0%)!

See also:  North Dakota at Gettysburg? and Roster of Veterans at the 1913 Gettysburg Reunion.



Roster of Veterans at the 1913 Gettysburg Reunion

sample

The 1913 Gettysburg reunion was the largest meeting of Civil War veterans after the war. Yet genealogists and other researchers have never had access to a list of those who attended.

I am very pleased to report that I have discovered what I believe are the original, unpublished registers that were signed by the veterans at the 1913 reunion. In most cases, the registers include the veteran’s name, company, regiment, home town, and tent number within the Great Encampment.

Sadly, as unofficial and voluntary log books, these registers identify only a small portion (about 6000) of the veterans who attended. However, additional research has led me to State financial records, newspaper clippings, correspondence, and other original records which, altogether, identify approximately 28,000 of the 54,000 veterans who attended the reunion. Additional records are actively being collected through a variety of State, Federal, and private sources.

So, while I may never be able to compile a complete list of the veterans who attended, I’m off to a great start and I expect the list to grow as additional sources are collected.

Bob Velke

[Note: A previous call for help transcribing these records went to more than 15,000 Gettysburg junkies on Facebook and met with a disappointing number of (ok, ZERO) volunteers.  So I've withdrawn that proposal and intend to work on the project myself, perhaps eventually publishing a book on the subject.  I'll continue to post progress updates below, however, for those who may be interested.]



North Dakota at Gettysburg?

1913-northdakotaThis photo is of a badge that was worn by a veteran from North Dakota at the 1913 (50th) reunion at Gettysburg.

Of more than 53,000 veterans in attendance, only 165 were from North Dakota. This is one of only two such badges that are known to still exist.  It is in our collection at Segway Tours of Gettysburg.

“Wait,” you say, “there weren’t any North Dakota units at the battle of  Gettysburg!”

That’s true.  In fact, North Dakota wasn’t even a state until 1889. But the badges that were worn by veterans at the reunion designate their state of residence in 1913, not the state from which they served in 1863.

Our collection of more than 50 veteran reunion & membership badges/medals will be on display at the next meeting of the Association of Licensed Battlefield Guides at the GAR Post Home on Middle Street on Friday night, September 19th starting at 6:30pm. The main speaker will be Gettysburg Ranger Angie Atkinson. Her topic will be Interpreting the Gettysburg battlefield.

You don’t have to be a guide to attend. Associate Membership is available to anyone with an interest in the battle and costs only $25 per year. Heck, you’ve spent twice that much for just one book! And an Associate Membership gives you almost all of the benefits of full membership, including access to the educational meetings, seminars, book discounts, the bimonthly newsletter, and more. If you study the Battle of Gettysburg, then you should be a member!



Badges?<br>We ain't got no badges.<br>We don't need no badges!<br>"I don't have to show you no stinkin' badges!"<br>  &nbsp-<i>Treasure of the Sierra Madre</i>

"Badges?
We ain't got no badges.
We don't need no badges!
I don't have to show you no stinkin' badges!"
   -Treasure of the Sierra Madre



Surgeons at Gettysburg

I’ve been researching the surgeons at Gettysburg field hospitals for inclusion in Pocket Gettysburg.  One of the best sources is “A Vast Sea of Misery” by Gregory A. Coco (Gettsyburg: Thomas Publications, 1988).  As always when I add a new source to Pocket Gettysburg, I try to reconcile that new data with the my previous sources, including especially the Civil War Soldiers and Sailors System (CWSS) and the inscriptions on battlefield monuments.

Using the exact spelling of the names in “A Vast Sea of Misery,” some of the surgeons were not found in those other sources.  But in the subset of cases listed below I found some other evidence of his possible identity.  While I don’t have any plans to research these people further, the data is recorded here for posterity in the hopes that it helps some future researchers.


UNION SURGEONS
Name Org./Hospital Comments
Adams, Z.B. Surgeon, 32nd Mass. Inf.  Hospital: regt. aid station near Wheatfield Recorded in the CWSS as “Zabdiel B. Adams”. Link
Akin, Jno. 71st Pa. Inf.  Hospital: 2nd Div., 2nd Corps Recorded in the CWSS as “John Aiken”. Link
Bache, Thomas H. U.S. Volunteers Listed as a surgeon and Staff Officer on the PA State Memorial.
Ball, J. Alfred 50th Ohio Inf.  Hospital: 2nd Div., 12th Corps The 50th OH Inf. was not at Gettysburg.  This is almost certainly the surgeon identified by the CWSS as “Alfred J. Ball” of the 5th Ohio Inf. (2D, 12C). Link
Beck Hospital: Presbyterian Church Other than John H. Beech of the 24th Michigan (see next), the CWSS lists only one surgeon in the AOP* with a similar** surname: “Elias W. H. Beck” of the 3rd Indiana Cavalry.  Of course, Coco did not say that this surgeon was in the army. Link
Beech, John H. 24th Mich. Inf.  Hospital: Express Office (see above) Link
Brown The CWSS lists only one surgeon in the AOP with a similar surname: Edward A. Brown of the 120th NY Inf. Link
Burchfield, James P. 83rd Pa. Inf.  Hospital: Cared for Col. S. Vincent at L.A. Bushman Farm Recorded on the PA State Memorial as “J.P. Burchfield” (83rd PA Inf.) but CWSS has a surgeon “James P. Burchfield” in the 53rd PA Inf. Link
Burr, W.J. Surgeon, 47th N.Y. Inf.  Hospital: 2nd Div., 2nd Corps The 47th NY Inf. was not at Gettysburg.  This is almost certainly the surgeon identified by the CWSS as “William J. Burr” of the 42nd NY Inf. (2D, 2C). Link
Campbell, Cornelius M. 150th N.Y. Inf.  Hospital: Abraham Spangler Farm Recorded in the CWSS as “Cornelius N. Campbell”. Link
Chamberlain, Cyrus N. Surgeon, U.S. Volunteers  Hospital: Med. Officer in Charge of 6th Corps Hosp., and Camp Letterman The CWSS lists a surgeon “Cyrus N. Chamberlain” who was at one time attached to the 1st MA Inf. Link
Chambers, William B. Hospital: Surgeon in Charge, 2nd Div., 1st Corps The CWSS lists a surgeon “William B. Chambers” who was at one time attached to the 97th NY Inf. (2D, 1C). Link
Cooper, W.S. Surgeon, 125th N.Y. Inf. Recorded in the CWSS as “William S. Cooper”. Link
Davis, U.Q. Surgeon, 148th Pa. Inf.  Hospital: 1st Div., 2nd Corps Recorded in the CWSS as “Uriah Q. Davis”. Link
Dwinell, Justin Surgeon, 108th Pa. Inf.  Hospital: Med. Officer in Charge of Corps Hosp., 2nd Corps Recorded in CWSS as “Justin Dwinelle” and on the PA State Memorial as “J. Dwinelle”. Link
Dougherty, Alexander N. Surgeon, U.S. Volunteers  Hospital: Med. Director of 2nd Corps The CWSS lists a surgeon “Alexander Dougherty” who was at one time attached to the 4th NJ Inf. Link
Fifield, Amos K. 7th Ohio Inf.  Hospital: 2nd Div., 12th Corps The CWSS lists a surgeon “Amos K. Fifield” who was at one time attached to the 29th OH Inf. Link
Gunn Civilian Physician from Michigan, Although a civilian according to Coco, the CWSS lists a surgeon “Moses Gunn” who was at one time attached to the 5th MI Inf. Link
Humphrey, Charles E. 142nd Pa. Inf. The CWSS lists a surgeon “Charles E. Humphrey” in the 143rd PA Inf. Link
Humphrey, William F. Surgeon, 149th Pa. Inf.  Hospital: 3rd Div., 1st Corps The CWSS lists a surgeon “William T. Humphrey” in the 149th PA Inf. Link
Hursam, Nahum A. Surgeon, 17th Me. Inf. Recorded in the CWSS as “Nahum A. Hersom”. Link
McAbee, H.M. Reynolds’ Staff, 4th Ohio Inf.  Hospital: 2nd Corps Hosp., near Round Top, Catherine Guinn Farm This surgeon is listed in the CWSS as “Henry M. McAbee” with alternate names of “Harry M. McAbee” and “H.M. McAbee”. Link
Link
Link
McCabe, H.M. 4th Ohio Inf.  Hospital: 3rd Div., 2nd Corps This surname is phonetically the same and therefore almost certainly the same surgeon as the one listed immediately above.
McGregor, Murdock Assistant Surgeon, 33rd Mass. Inf.  Hospital: George George House The CWSS lists a surgeon “Murdock McGregor” who was at one time attached to the 20th MA Inf. Link
Meyer, Louis C. 25th Ohio Inf.  Hospital: 1st Div., 11th Corps The CWSS lists a surgeon “Louis G. Meyer” (aka Myer) who was at one time attached to the 25th OH Inf. Link
Link
Neff, Henry K. Surgeon, 8th Pa. (Reserves)  Hospital: Poorhouse-taken prisoner The 37th PA Inf. (8th PA Reserves) was not at Gettysburg but the CWSS does list a surgeon “Henry K. Neff” (aka “Henry R. Neff”) who was at one time attached to the 153th PA Inf. Link
Link
Nordquist, Charles J. Surgeon, 83rd N.Y. Inf.  Hospital: 2nd Div., 1st Corps The CWSS lists a surgeon “Charles Nordhouse, Jr.” who was at one time attached to the 83rd NY Inf. Link
Oakley, Lewis W. Surgeon, 2nd N.J. Inf.  Hospital: Camp Letterman The CWSS lists a surgeon “Lewis W. Oakley” who was at one time attached to the 4th NJ Inf. Link
Palmer Hospital: Hosp. in Carlisle The CWSS lists only one surgeon in the AOP with a similar surname: “Henry Palmer” of the 7th WI Inf.  Of course, Coco does not claim that this surgeon was in the army. Link
Potter, George L. Assistant Surgeon, 5th U.S. Cavalry The CWSS lists a surgeon “George L. Potter” who was at one time attached to the 145th PA Inf. Link
Read, Louis W. Surgeon, U.S. Volunteers  Hospital: 3rd Div., 5th Corps The CWSS lists a surgeon “Louis W. Read” who was at one time attached to the 1st PA Reserves (30th Vols). (3D, 5C) Link
Rulison, William H. 9th N.Y. Inf.  Hospital: Med. Officer in Charge of Corps Hospital, Presbyterian Church The CWSS lists a surgeon “William H. Rulison” who was at one time attached to the 155th PA Cavalry. Link
Russell, Ira Surgeon, U.S. Volunteers  Hospital: 5th Corps, J. Weikert Farm, stayed w/General Weed The CWSS lists a surgeon “Ira Russell” who was at one time attached to the 11th MA Inf. (1B, 2D, 3C). Link
Sanger, Eugene F. U.S. Volunteers  Hospital: Presbyterian Church The CWSS lists a surgeon “Eugene F. Sanger” who was at one time attached to the 6th ME Inf. Link
Sharp, W.W. Assistant Surgeon, 140th Pa. Inf.  Hospital: 1st Div., 2nd Corps The CWSS lists a surgeon “William W. Sharp” who was at one time attached to the 18th PA Cavalry (1B, 3D, CC). Link
Link
Shippen, Edward Surgeon, U.S. Volunteers  Hospital: 1st Div., 5th Corps The CWSS lists a surgeon “Edward Shippen” who was at one time attached to the 1st PA Light Artillery. Link
Sturdevant, Samuel B. Assistant Surgeon, 139th Pa. Inf.  Hospital: Camp Letterman The CWSS lists a surgeon “Samuel B. Sturdevant” (aka “Samuel B. Sturdevent”) who was at one time attached to the 84th PA Inf. Link
Link
Thome, W.H. Surgeon, U.S. Volunteers  Hospital: 3rd Div., 11th Corps The CWSS lists a surgeon “William H. Thome” who was at one time attached to the 12th PA Reserves (41st Vols.) (3D, 5C). Link
Weidman, William W. 2nd Pa. Cavalry  Hospital: “Treated Rebs” The CWSS lists a surgeon “William M. Weidman” who at one time was attached to the 2nd PA Cavalry. Link
Wolf, Fred Surgeon, 39th N.Y. Inf.  Hospital: 3rd Div., 2nd Corps Recorded in the CWSS as “Frederich Wolff.” Link
Woodward, A.T. Surgeon  Hospital: Surgeon in Charge, 3rd Div., 1st Corps The CWSS lists a surgeon “Adrian T. Woodward” (aka “Adrian F. Woodward”) who at one time was attached to the 14th VT Inf. (3B, 3D, 1C). Link
Link
CONFEDERATE SURGEONS
Baruch, Simon Assistant Surgeon, 3rd S.C. Inf.  Hospital: Black Horse Tavern The CWSS lists a surgeon “Simon Baruch” who was at one time attached to the 13th MS Inf. Link
Black The only surgeon listed in the CWSS in the AONV* with a similar surname** is “Harvey Black” of the 4th VA Inf. Link
Briggs Surgeon, 30th N.C. Inf. The only surgeon listed in the CWSS with a similar surname in the 30th NC Inf. Is “G.W. Briggs”. Link
Clifton, James B. Semmes’ Brigade  Hospital: George Rose Barn The CWSS lists a surgeon “James B. Clifton” in the 16th GA Inf. (Wofford’s Brigade). Link
Cullen, J. S. Dorsey Surgeon  Hospital: Med. Dir. Longstreet’s Corps, Black Horse Tavern Recorded in the CWSS as “J.S.D. Cullen” who was at one time attached to the 1st VA Inf. Link
Edwards 8th Va. Inf. The only surgeon listed in the CWSS with a similar surname in the 8th VA Inf. is “Richard H. Edwards”. Link
Eldridge McLaws’ Div.  Hospital: J. Cunningham Farm The CWSS lists only one surgeon in the AONV with a similar surname: “E. J. Eldridge” (aka “E. J. Eldrige”) who was at one time attached to Cobb’s Legion, the infantry of which was in McLaws’ Division. Link
Link
Gott Hospital: Surgeon in Charge of Early’s Div. The CWSS lists only one surgeon in the AONV with a similar surname: “Louis E. Gott” (aka “Lewis E. Gott”) who was at one time attached to the 21st GA Inf. (Rodes Division). Link
Green 55th N.C. Inf.  Hospital: Heth’s Div. Hospital The only surgeon listed in the CWSS with a similar surname in the 55th NC Inf. is “Benjamin T. Green” (aka “B.F. Green”). Link
Link
Hays, J.M. Hospital: Camp Letterman The CWSS lists a surgeon “John M. Hayes” who at one time was attached to the 26th AL Inf. Link
Link
Hubbard Davis’ Brigade  Hospital: Samuel Lohr Farm The CWSS lists only one surgeon in the AONV with a similar surname: “H. H. Hubbard” of the 2nd MS Inf. (Davis’ Brigade). Link
Minor, H. A. 8th Ala. Inf., Anderson’s Div.  Hospital: Surgeon in Charge, Butt’s Schoolhouse on Fairfield Road.  Camp Letterman The CWSS lists a surgeon “H.A. Minor” who at one time was attached to the 9th AL Inf. (Anderson’s Division). Link
Morton Surgeon, Kemper’s Brigade The only surgeon listed in the CWSS with a similar surname in Kemper’s Brigade is “C.B. Morton” who was at one time attached to the 7th VA Inf. Link
Parramore, H.J. Assistant Surgeon, 58th Ga. Inf. The 58th GA Inf. was not at Gettysburg.  This is almost certainly the surgeon listed in the CWSS as “H.J. Parramore” who was at one time attached to the 50th GA Inf. Link
Patterson, F.W. Surgeon, McLaws’ Div.  Hospital: Surgeon in Charge, Bream’s Mill The CWSS lists a surgeon “Frank W. Patterson” who at one time was attached to the 17th MS Inf. (McLaws’ Division). Link
Pearce, J.F. 18th S.C. Inf.  Hospital: Black Horse Tavern for 6 weeks The 18th SC Inf. was not at Gettysburg.  The CWSS lists a surgeon “James F. Pearce/Pierce” (aka “James T. Pearce/Pierce”) who at one time was attached to the 8th SC Inf.  It also lists a surgeon “J.F. Pearce” who was at one time attached to the 3rd SC Inf. Link
Link
Link
Link
Link
Reeves Pickett’s Div.  Hospital: Surgeon in Charge at Bream’s Tavern & Farm The only surgeon listed in the CWSS in the AONV with a similar surname is “Landen C. Reeves” (aka “Landon Reeves”) who at one time was attached to the 1st VA Cavalry (Stuart’s Division). Link
Link
Sayers Johnson’s Div.  Hospital: Surgeon in Charge The only surgeon listed in the CWSS with a similar surname in Johnson’s Division is “Samuel R. Sayers” who at one time was attached to the 27th VA Inf. Link
Scott 7th Va. Inf.  Hospital: 2nd Corps The 7th VA Inf. was in the 1st Corps, AONV at Gettysburg.  The CWSS does list a surgeon “Isaac Scott” who was at one time attached to the 7th WV Inf. (1B, 3D, 2C, AOP), however.  The only surgeons with a similar name that were listed by the CWSS in the AONV were “A. Howard Scott” who was at one time attached to the 4th AL Inf. (1st Corps) and “A.H. Scott” (aka “A.J. Scott”) who was at one time attached to the 4th TX Inf. (also 1st Corps). Link
Link
Link
Link
Link
Spence, W. A. Archer’s Brigade  Hospital: Chief Surgeon, Cashtown The CWSS lists a surgeon “William A. Spence/Spince” who was at one time attached to the 47th VA Inf. (Brockenbrough’s Brigade). Link
Link
Stewart Johnson’s Div (?)  Hospital: Fairfield Road The only surgeon listed in the CWSS in the AONV with a similar surname is “William F. Steuart/Stewart”) who was at one time attached to the 3rd NC Inf. (Johnson’s Division). Link
Link
Warren (?) 11th or 26th N.C. Inf. (?)  Hospital: Chambersburg Road There is no surgeon listed in the CWSS in the 11th NC Inf. with a similar surname.  The only surgeon listed in the CWSS in the 26th NC Inf. with a similar surname is “Lewellen P. Warren”. Link
Warren, L. P. Brigade Surgeon, 52nd N.C. Inf.  Hospital: Pettigrew’s Brigade The only surgeon listed in the CWSS in the 52nd NC Inf. with a similar surname is “H. Warren”.  The only confederate surgeon listed in the CWSS with a similar surname and the initials of “L.P.” was “Lewellen P. Warren” who was at one time attached to the 26th NC Inf. (see above). Link
Link
Watson, Major Alabama  Hospital: Dr. M.L. Stoever house The only surgeon listed in the CWSS  from an Alabama regiment with a similar surname was “Benjamin F. Watkins” who at one time was attached to the 44th AL Inf. Link

* In the context of this article, “in the AOP” and “in the AONV” means in units of the respective armies which were at Gettysburg.

** All name comparisons are made phonetically.



Give the Gift of Gettysburg for 10% off!

A gift certificate for a Segway tour of the Gettysburg battlefield is the perfect holiday gift - and for the next few days it is 10% off! Don’t miss this rare discounted price to experience the #1 most popular activity in Gettysburg, according to TripAdvisor.com.

A gift certificate from Segway Tours and Rides of Gettysburg can be for any amount that you choose or could simply reflect the type of tour or ride (so the recipient does not see the price that you paid). You’ll get an attractive paper certificate that you can put in an envelope as a gift. You can even buy a gift certificate and redeem it yourself for one of our tours, rides, souvenir shirts, or other products.

Best of all, we can optionally email the gift certificate to you - so you don’t have to wait for it to arrive by mail! (A color printer is recommended).

Through this limited-time offer, the discount CAN be combined with other discounts (ask for resident, military, or first responder discounts) but cannot be applied to the optional License Battlefield Guide fee. Gift certificates can be redeemed for at least two years after the date of issue.

Gift certificates are only available by phone: 717-253-7987. The 10% discount offer expires Saturday, 30 November 2013 so call us today!

Experience history and enjoy the ride.



Also next week…

Capt. Thomas F. Reid (1963)

Capt. Thomas F. Reid (1963)

In addition to the 150th anniversary of the Gettysburg Address, next week marks the 50th anniversary of JFK’s assassination. My father-in-law, Tom Reid, was in charge of JFK’s state funeral at Arlington National Cemetery.

Now 76 years old and coping with Parkinson’s, Tom is interviewed in this video about the events of those tumultuous days. He gives his first-hand account and those of more than 20 other members of The Old Guard who participated in the funeral in his recent book, Their Finest Hour.

We love you, Tom. Thank you for your service to the country!



The Gettysburg Census of 1860 - Part 2

census1860As mentioned earlier, I’ve transcribed the 1860 U.S. Federal Census of Gettysburg and will include all of those people in a future version of Pocket Gettysburg.

In addition to the previous analysis of the census, here is some interesting financial data about the residents of the Borough in 1860…

Value of Real Estate
Males Females All People
White $799,500 87.9% $100,800 11.1% $900,300 99.0%
Black $3,500 0.4% $2,650 0.3% $6,150 0.7%
Mulatto $3,400 0.4% $0 0.0% $3,400 0.4%
All Races $806,400 88.6% $103,450 11.4% $909,850 100.0%
Value of Personal Estate
Males Females All People
White $545,335 91.2% $49,125 8.2% $594,460 99.5%
Black $1,210 0.2% $400 0.1% $1,610 0.3%
Mulatto $1,600 0.3% $0 0.0% $1,600 0.3%
All Races $548,145 91.7% $49,525 8.3% $597,670 100.0%
Value of Total Estate
Males Females All People
White $1,344,835 89.2% $149,925 9.9% $1,494,760 99.2%
Black $4,710 0.3% $3,050 0.2% $7,760 0.5%
Mulatto $5,000 0.3% $0 0.0% $5,000 0.3%
All Races $1,354,545 89.9% $152,975 10.1% $1,507,520 100.0%

If you look at just the heads of households….

Male Heads of Households
# % Average Real Estate Average Personal Estate Average Total Estate
White 347 82.4% $2,103.17 $1,356.08 $3,459.25
Black 17 4.0% $164.71 $55.88 $220.59
Mulatto 3 0.7% $1,033.33 $283.33 $1,316.67
All Races 367 87.2% $2,004.63 $1,287.08 $3,291.72
Female Heads of Households
# % Average Real Estate Average Personal Estate Average Total Estate
White 44 10.5% $1,165.34 $233.18 $1398.52
Black 9 2.1% $261.11 $33.33 $294.44
Mulatto 1 0.2% $0.00 $0.00 $0.00
All Races 54 12.8% $993.06 $195.56 $1188.61
All Heads of Households
# % Average Real Estate Average Personal Estate Average Total Estate
White 391 92.9% $1,997.63 $1,229.72 $3227.35
Black 26 6.2% $198.08 $48.08 $246.15
Mulatto 4 1.0% $775.00 $212.50 $987.5
All Races 421 100.0% $1,874.88 $1,147.08 $3021.96

Among other interesting conclusions here is that the value of the combined estates of all blacks and mulattoes in the Borough was less than that of four average households headed by white males.

The top 10 estates were owned by…

Given Surname Occupation Value of Total Estate
George Swope President, Gettysburg Bank $86,000
Samuel S. Schmucker Professor, Theological Seminary $32,800
Mary Myers $31,000
Samuel Fahnestock Merchant $30,000
Robert McCurdy President, Gettysburg R.R. $26,500
Joseph Wible Wagon maker $23,000
William A Duncan Attorney-at-Law $23,000
Moses McClean Attorney-at-Law $22,500
David Zeigler Merchant $21,000
Henry Rupp Tanner $20,500

And when looking at just real estate…

Given Surname Occupation Value of Real Estate
Mary Myers $30,000
Robert McCurdy President, Gettysburg R.R. $23,000
Joseph Wible Wagon maker $20,500
Henry Culp Farmer $18,000
Moses McClean Attorney-at-Law $16,500
William A Duncan Attorney-at-Law $15,000
David Zeigler Merchant $15,000
Andrew Polly Tinner $15,000
James Paxton $15,000
Samuel S. Schmucker Professor, Theological Seminary $14,300

That is, due apparently to a substantial inheritance, a woman, Mary Myers, was the single largest landholder and the third richest person in the Borough!

Abraham Cole, a 40-year-old Methodist clergyman, owned the most land ($1000) and had the largest total estate ($1100) among black residents of the Borough.

Here’s a list of the 25 most common surnames in the Borough as of 1860…

Culp 73
Little 62
Zeigler 61
Sheads 32
Tate 29
Myers 27
Gilbert 26
Buehler 25
Warren 25
McCreary 23
Martin 22
Jacobs 20
Tipton 20
Codori 19
Fahnestock 18
Kitzmiller 17
Scott 17
Snyder 17
Wisotsky 17
Devan 16
Minnigh 16
Stuck 16
Welty 16
Degroft 15
McElroy 15

Lastly, you can have your own copy of the 1860 U.S. Federal Census of Gettysburg. I’ve uploaded a fully-searchable PDF file with my transcription here.

Bob Velke
SegTours, LLC



The Gettysburg Census of 1860

census1860I’ve transcribed the entire 1860 Federal Census of Gettysburg in the ongoing effort to learn more about the residents of the Borough at the time of the battle.  (I might even add all of the residents in a future version of our smartphone app, Pocket Gettysburg.)

The transcription process was time-consuming because I frequently found myself asking questions like “What the heck is a ‘mantua maker’?”, “What’s a ’saddle tree maker’?”, and “What’s the difference between a domestic and a servant?”  So, of course, I got sidetracked while looking for those answers.  But it has all been great fun and a quite a learning experience!

The census was taken over the first 18 days of June, 1860.  Here’s the breakdown on some of the types of data that were recorded:

Total People 2390
Number of dwellings 421
Number of families 474
Avg. size of household 5.68 people


Sex and Race
Male Male% Female Female% Total Total Percent
White 1109 46.40% 1103 46.15% 2202 92.13%
Black 69 2.89% 88 3.68% 157 6.57%
Mulatto 16 0.67% 15 0.63% 31 1.30%
Total 1194 49.96% 1206 50.46% 2390 100


Average Age
Male 23.93
Female 25.84
Total 24.89


Age Distribution
Age Male Male% Female Female% Total Total Percent
0-10 347 14.52% 310 12.97% 657 27.49%
11-20 272 11.38% 255 10.67% 527 22.05%
21-30 197 8.24% 237 9.92% 434 18.16%
31-40 124 5.19% 130 5.44% 254 10.63%
41-50 101 4.23% 118 4.94% 219 9.16%
51-60 90 3.77% 84 3.51% 174 7.28%
61-70 37 1.55% 48 2.01% 85 3.56%
71-80 13 0.54% 12 0.50% 25 1.05%
81-90 3 0.13% 10 0.42% 13 0.54%
91+ 0 0.00% 2 0.08% 2 0.08%


Other
Count Percent
Married within the year 38 1.59%
Attended school with the year 578 24.18%
Over 20yrs and cannot read or write 53 2.22%
Deaf 1 0.04%
Convict/Prisoner 5 0.21%
Foreign born 171 7.15%


Age Distribution of People Who Were Married Within the Year
Age Male Male% Female Female% Total Percent
17-20 1 2.63% 4 10.53% 5 13.16%
21-30 9 23.68% 13 34.21% 22 57.89%
31-40 5 13.16% 0 0.00% 5 13.16%
41-50 2 5.26% 2 5.26% 4 10.53%
51-60 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00%
61-70 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00%
71-80 2 5.26% 0 0.00% 2 5.26%
Total 19 50.00% 19 50.00% 38 100.00%


Age Distribution of People Who Attended School Within the Year
Age Male Male% Female Female% Total Percent
4-10 150 25.95% 123 21.28% 273 47.23%
11-20 164 28.37% 131 22.66% 295 51.04%
21-30 7 1.21% 2 0.35% 9 1.56%
31-40 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00%
41-50 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00%
51-60 0 0.00% 1 0.17% 1 0.17%
Total 321 55.54% 257 44.46% 578 100.00%

Place of Birth
Count Percent
Pennsylvania 1965 82.22%
Maryland 188 7.87%
Germany/Bavaria/Prussia, etc. 132 5.52%
Virginia 21 0.88%
Ireland 19 0.79%
New Jersey 12 0.50%
France 10 0.42%
Ohio 10 0.42%
New York 8 0.33%
Delaware 4 0.17%
England 4 0.17%
Indiana 3 0.13%
Connecticut 2 0.08%
Holland 2 0.08%
Illinois 2 0.08%
Canada 1 0.04%
English Channel 1 0.04%
Georgia 1 0.04%
Massachusetts 1 0.04%
Missouri 1 0.04%
New Hampshire 1 0.04%
Scotland 1 0.04%
Switzerland 1 0.04%

As is generally known, coach making was the biggest industry in Gettysburg in 1860.  When you count all of the coach-related trades like wheelwrights and coach lace weavers, it represented a little more than 11% of the work force in the Borough.  Of course, that population is limited to the 672 people (28.12%) whose occupation is specifically listed in the census. For many people (including 16% of males between the age of 18 and 60), no occupation was listed — so some occupations were probably under-represented (e.g., farmers).  Lastly, it is acknowledged that the grouping of occupations into industries is somewhat subjective.

But with those caveats, here are the top 10 industries in Gettysburg in 1860:


Industry Count Percent Includes
Coach Making 75 11.16% Coach/Wagon Maker, Coach Painter, Coach/Carriage Trimmer, Coach Smith, Coach Lace Weaver, Body Maker, Wheelwright, Carriage Seller
Service 73 10.86% Domestic, Housekeeper, Help, Waiter, Coach Driver
Clothing 72 10.71% Tailor(ess), Seamstress, Hatter/Milliner, Shoemaker/Cordwainer, Mantua Maker, Clothier
Construction 62 9.23% Carpenter, Plasterer, Stone Cutter, Stone Mason, Brick Maker/Layer/Carrier, Mason
Labor 55 8.18% Day Laborer, Hireling
Equine 48 7.14% Blacksmith, Harness Maker, Saddle/SaddleTree Maker, Livery Keeper, Hostler
Education 22 3.27% Teacher, Professor
Merchant 21 3.13%
Furniture 18 2.68% Cabinet Maker, Chair Maker, Furniture Dealer
Clerk 18 2.68%

As for specific occupations, these are the most common among men, including their average estate (real estate + personal estate):


Occupation Count Avg Estate
Day Laborer 53 $319
Coach Maker 33 $644
Blacksmith 30 $752
Shoemaker 29 $622
Carpenter 23 $470
Merchant 21 $10747
Clerk 18 $272
Farmer 17 $5541
Printer 14 $60
Cabinet Maker 13 $790

(For this purpose, each category includes journeymen, apprentices, and masters).

These are the most common occupations among women:


Occupation Count Average Estate
Domestic 56 $37
Mantua Maker 10 $317
Tailoress 9 $55
Teacher 9 $200
Milliner 8 $325
Housekeeper 7 0
Help 5 0
Nurse 3 $33
Seamstress 3 $41
Laundress 2 $137

Oh, and the difference between a domestic and a servant?  Domestics were generally white (44 of 50 or 88%) and servants were generally black (5 of 7 or 71%).

I’ll post more analysis with respect to individual residents once I finish cross-checking name spellings against other records.

Bob Velke
SegTours, LLC



SegTours in USA Today!

Segway Tours of Gettysburg is prominently featured today on the front page of the Travel section of USA Today! LBG Charlie Fennell talks about Segway tours of the battlefield and the challenges that the borough will face on the 150th anniversary. Our own Meghan Ogley is also featured in photos and video!

Here’s the full article and video.