Surgeons at Gettysburg

I’ve been researching the surgeons at Gettysburg field hospitals for inclusion in Pocket Gettysburg.  One of the best sources is “A Vast Sea of Misery” by Gregory A. Coco (Gettsyburg: Thomas Publications, 1988).  As always when I add a new source to Pocket Gettysburg, I try to reconcile that new data with the my previous sources, including especially the Civil War Soldiers and Sailors System (CWSS) and the inscriptions on battlefield monuments.

Using the exact spelling of the names in “A Vast Sea of Misery,” some of the surgeons were not found in those other sources.  But in the subset of cases listed below I found some other evidence of his possible identity.  While I don’t have any plans to research these people further, the data is recorded here for posterity in the hopes that it helps some future researchers.


UNION SURGEONS
Name Org./Hospital Comments
Adams, Z.B. Surgeon, 32nd Mass. Inf.  Hospital: regt. aid station near Wheatfield Recorded in the CWSS as “Zabdiel B. Adams”. Link
Akin, Jno. 71st Pa. Inf.  Hospital: 2nd Div., 2nd Corps Recorded in the CWSS as “John Aiken”. Link
Bache, Thomas H. U.S. Volunteers Listed as a surgeon and Staff Officer on the PA State Memorial.
Ball, J. Alfred 50th Ohio Inf.  Hospital: 2nd Div., 12th Corps The 50th OH Inf. was not at Gettysburg.  This is almost certainly the surgeon identified by the CWSS as “Alfred J. Ball” of the 5th Ohio Inf. (2D, 12C). Link
Beck Hospital: Presbyterian Church Other than John H. Beech of the 24th Michigan (see next), the CWSS lists only one surgeon in the AOP* with a similar** surname: “Elias W. H. Beck” of the 3rd Indiana Cavalry.  Of course, Coco did not say that this surgeon was in the army. Link
Beech, John H. 24th Mich. Inf.  Hospital: Express Office (see above) Link
Brown The CWSS lists only one surgeon in the AOP with a similar surname: Edward A. Brown of the 120th NY Inf. Link
Burchfield, James P. 83rd Pa. Inf.  Hospital: Cared for Col. S. Vincent at L.A. Bushman Farm Recorded on the PA State Memorial as “J.P. Burchfield” (83rd PA Inf.) but CWSS has a surgeon “James P. Burchfield” in the 53rd PA Inf. Link
Burr, W.J. Surgeon, 47th N.Y. Inf.  Hospital: 2nd Div., 2nd Corps The 47th NY Inf. was not at Gettysburg.  This is almost certainly the surgeon identified by the CWSS as “William J. Burr” of the 42nd NY Inf. (2D, 2C). Link
Campbell, Cornelius M. 150th N.Y. Inf.  Hospital: Abraham Spangler Farm Recorded in the CWSS as “Cornelius N. Campbell”. Link
Chamberlain, Cyrus N. Surgeon, U.S. Volunteers  Hospital: Med. Officer in Charge of 6th Corps Hosp., and Camp Letterman The CWSS lists a surgeon “Cyrus N. Chamberlain” who was at one time attached to the 1st MA Inf. Link
Chambers, William B. Hospital: Surgeon in Charge, 2nd Div., 1st Corps The CWSS lists a surgeon “William B. Chambers” who was at one time attached to the 97th NY Inf. (2D, 1C). Link
Cooper, W.S. Surgeon, 125th N.Y. Inf. Recorded in the CWSS as “William S. Cooper”. Link
Davis, U.Q. Surgeon, 148th Pa. Inf.  Hospital: 1st Div., 2nd Corps Recorded in the CWSS as “Uriah Q. Davis”. Link
Dwinell, Justin Surgeon, 108th Pa. Inf.  Hospital: Med. Officer in Charge of Corps Hosp., 2nd Corps Recorded in CWSS as “Justin Dwinelle” and on the PA State Memorial as “J. Dwinelle”. Link
Dougherty, Alexander N. Surgeon, U.S. Volunteers  Hospital: Med. Director of 2nd Corps The CWSS lists a surgeon “Alexander Dougherty” who was at one time attached to the 4th NJ Inf. Link
Fifield, Amos K. 7th Ohio Inf.  Hospital: 2nd Div., 12th Corps The CWSS lists a surgeon “Amos K. Fifield” who was at one time attached to the 29th OH Inf. Link
Gunn Civilian Physician from Michigan, Although a civilian according to Coco, the CWSS lists a surgeon “Moses Gunn” who was at one time attached to the 5th MI Inf. Link
Humphrey, Charles E. 142nd Pa. Inf. The CWSS lists a surgeon “Charles E. Humphrey” in the 143rd PA Inf. Link
Humphrey, William F. Surgeon, 149th Pa. Inf.  Hospital: 3rd Div., 1st Corps The CWSS lists a surgeon “William T. Humphrey” in the 149th PA Inf. Link
Hursam, Nahum A. Surgeon, 17th Me. Inf. Recorded in the CWSS as “Nahum A. Hersom”. Link
McAbee, H.M. Reynolds’ Staff, 4th Ohio Inf.  Hospital: 2nd Corps Hosp., near Round Top, Catherine Guinn Farm This surgeon is listed in the CWSS as “Henry M. McAbee” with alternate names of “Harry M. McAbee” and “H.M. McAbee”. Link
Link
Link
McCabe, H.M. 4th Ohio Inf.  Hospital: 3rd Div., 2nd Corps This surname is phonetically the same and therefore almost certainly the same surgeon as the one listed immediately above.
McGregor, Murdock Assistant Surgeon, 33rd Mass. Inf.  Hospital: George George House The CWSS lists a surgeon “Murdock McGregor” who was at one time attached to the 20th MA Inf. Link
Meyer, Louis C. 25th Ohio Inf.  Hospital: 1st Div., 11th Corps The CWSS lists a surgeon “Louis G. Meyer” (aka Myer) who was at one time attached to the 25th OH Inf. Link
Link
Neff, Henry K. Surgeon, 8th Pa. (Reserves)  Hospital: Poorhouse-taken prisoner The 37th PA Inf. (8th PA Reserves) was not at Gettysburg but the CWSS does list a surgeon “Henry K. Neff” (aka “Henry R. Neff”) who was at one time attached to the 153th PA Inf. Link
Link
Nordquist, Charles J. Surgeon, 83rd N.Y. Inf.  Hospital: 2nd Div., 1st Corps The CWSS lists a surgeon “Charles Nordhouse, Jr.” who was at one time attached to the 83rd NY Inf. Link
Oakley, Lewis W. Surgeon, 2nd N.J. Inf.  Hospital: Camp Letterman The CWSS lists a surgeon “Lewis W. Oakley” who was at one time attached to the 4th NJ Inf. Link
Palmer Hospital: Hosp. in Carlisle The CWSS lists only one surgeon in the AOP with a similar surname: “Henry Palmer” of the 7th WI Inf.  Of course, Coco does not claim that this surgeon was in the army. Link
Potter, George L. Assistant Surgeon, 5th U.S. Cavalry The CWSS lists a surgeon “George L. Potter” who was at one time attached to the 145th PA Inf. Link
Read, Louis W. Surgeon, U.S. Volunteers  Hospital: 3rd Div., 5th Corps The CWSS lists a surgeon “Louis W. Read” who was at one time attached to the 1st PA Reserves (30th Vols). (3D, 5C) Link
Rulison, William H. 9th N.Y. Inf.  Hospital: Med. Officer in Charge of Corps Hospital, Presbyterian Church The CWSS lists a surgeon “William H. Rulison” who was at one time attached to the 155th PA Cavalry. Link
Russell, Ira Surgeon, U.S. Volunteers  Hospital: 5th Corps, J. Weikert Farm, stayed w/General Weed The CWSS lists a surgeon “Ira Russell” who was at one time attached to the 11th MA Inf. (1B, 2D, 3C). Link
Sanger, Eugene F. U.S. Volunteers  Hospital: Presbyterian Church The CWSS lists a surgeon “Eugene F. Sanger” who was at one time attached to the 6th ME Inf. Link
Sharp, W.W. Assistant Surgeon, 140th Pa. Inf.  Hospital: 1st Div., 2nd Corps The CWSS lists a surgeon “William W. Sharp” who was at one time attached to the 18th PA Cavalry (1B, 3D, CC). Link
Link
Shippen, Edward Surgeon, U.S. Volunteers  Hospital: 1st Div., 5th Corps The CWSS lists a surgeon “Edward Shippen” who was at one time attached to the 1st PA Light Artillery. Link
Sturdevant, Samuel B. Assistant Surgeon, 139th Pa. Inf.  Hospital: Camp Letterman The CWSS lists a surgeon “Samuel B. Sturdevant” (aka “Samuel B. Sturdevent”) who was at one time attached to the 84th PA Inf. Link
Link
Thome, W.H. Surgeon, U.S. Volunteers  Hospital: 3rd Div., 11th Corps The CWSS lists a surgeon “William H. Thome” who was at one time attached to the 12th PA Reserves (41st Vols.) (3D, 5C). Link
Weidman, William W. 2nd Pa. Cavalry  Hospital: “Treated Rebs” The CWSS lists a surgeon “William M. Weidman” who at one time was attached to the 2nd PA Cavalry. Link
Wolf, Fred Surgeon, 39th N.Y. Inf.  Hospital: 3rd Div., 2nd Corps Recorded in the CWSS as “Frederich Wolff.” Link
Woodward, A.T. Surgeon  Hospital: Surgeon in Charge, 3rd Div., 1st Corps The CWSS lists a surgeon “Adrian T. Woodward” (aka “Adrian F. Woodward”) who at one time was attached to the 14th VT Inf. (3B, 3D, 1C). Link
Link
CONFEDERATE SURGEONS
Baruch, Simon Assistant Surgeon, 3rd S.C. Inf.  Hospital: Black Horse Tavern The CWSS lists a surgeon “Simon Baruch” who was at one time attached to the 13th MS Inf. Link
Black The only surgeon listed in the CWSS in the AONV* with a similar surname** is “Harvey Black” of the 4th VA Inf. Link
Briggs Surgeon, 30th N.C. Inf. The only surgeon listed in the CWSS with a similar surname in the 30th NC Inf. Is “G.W. Briggs”. Link
Clifton, James B. Semmes’ Brigade  Hospital: George Rose Barn The CWSS lists a surgeon “James B. Clifton” in the 16th GA Inf. (Wofford’s Brigade). Link
Cullen, J. S. Dorsey Surgeon  Hospital: Med. Dir. Longstreet’s Corps, Black Horse Tavern Recorded in the CWSS as “J.S.D. Cullen” who was at one time attached to the 1st VA Inf. Link
Edwards 8th Va. Inf. The only surgeon listed in the CWSS with a similar surname in the 8th VA Inf. is “Richard H. Edwards”. Link
Eldridge McLaws’ Div.  Hospital: J. Cunningham Farm The CWSS lists only one surgeon in the AONV with a similar surname: “E. J. Eldridge” (aka “E. J. Eldrige”) who was at one time attached to Cobb’s Legion, the infantry of which was in McLaws’ Division. Link
Link
Gott Hospital: Surgeon in Charge of Early’s Div. The CWSS lists only one surgeon in the AONV with a similar surname: “Louis E. Gott” (aka “Lewis E. Gott”) who was at one time attached to the 21st GA Inf. (Rodes Division). Link
Green 55th N.C. Inf.  Hospital: Heth’s Div. Hospital The only surgeon listed in the CWSS with a similar surname in the 55th NC Inf. is “Benjamin T. Green” (aka “B.F. Green”). Link
Link
Hays, J.M. Hospital: Camp Letterman The CWSS lists a surgeon “John M. Hayes” who at one time was attached to the 26th AL Inf. Link
Link
Hubbard Davis’ Brigade  Hospital: Samuel Lohr Farm The CWSS lists only one surgeon in the AONV with a similar surname: “H. H. Hubbard” of the 2nd MS Inf. (Davis’ Brigade). Link
Minor, H. A. 8th Ala. Inf., Anderson’s Div.  Hospital: Surgeon in Charge, Butt’s Schoolhouse on Fairfield Road.  Camp Letterman The CWSS lists a surgeon “H.A. Minor” who at one time was attached to the 9th AL Inf. (Anderson’s Division). Link
Morton Surgeon, Kemper’s Brigade The only surgeon listed in the CWSS with a similar surname in Kemper’s Brigade is “C.B. Morton” who was at one time attached to the 7th VA Inf. Link
Parramore, H.J. Assistant Surgeon, 58th Ga. Inf. The 58th GA Inf. was not at Gettysburg.  This is almost certainly the surgeon listed in the CWSS as “H.J. Parramore” who was at one time attached to the 50th GA Inf. Link
Patterson, F.W. Surgeon, McLaws’ Div.  Hospital: Surgeon in Charge, Bream’s Mill The CWSS lists a surgeon “Frank W. Patterson” who at one time was attached to the 17th MS Inf. (McLaws’ Division). Link
Pearce, J.F. 18th S.C. Inf.  Hospital: Black Horse Tavern for 6 weeks The 18th SC Inf. was not at Gettysburg.  The CWSS lists a surgeon “James F. Pearce/Pierce” (aka “James T. Pearce/Pierce”) who at one time was attached to the 8th SC Inf.  It also lists a surgeon “J.F. Pearce” who was at one time attached to the 3rd SC Inf. Link
Link
Link
Link
Link
Reeves Pickett’s Div.  Hospital: Surgeon in Charge at Bream’s Tavern & Farm The only surgeon listed in the CWSS in the AONV with a similar surname is “Landen C. Reeves” (aka “Landon Reeves”) who at one time was attached to the 1st VA Cavalry (Stuart’s Division). Link
Link
Sayers Johnson’s Div.  Hospital: Surgeon in Charge The only surgeon listed in the CWSS with a similar surname in Johnson’s Division is “Samuel R. Sayers” who at one time was attached to the 27th VA Inf. Link
Scott 7th Va. Inf.  Hospital: 2nd Corps The 7th VA Inf. was in the 1st Corps, AONV at Gettysburg.  The CWSS does list a surgeon “Isaac Scott” who was at one time attached to the 7th WV Inf. (1B, 3D, 2C, AOP), however.  The only surgeons with a similar name that were listed by the CWSS in the AONV were “A. Howard Scott” who was at one time attached to the 4th AL Inf. (1st Corps) and “A.H. Scott” (aka “A.J. Scott”) who was at one time attached to the 4th TX Inf. (also 1st Corps). Link
Link
Link
Link
Link
Spence, W. A. Archer’s Brigade  Hospital: Chief Surgeon, Cashtown The CWSS lists a surgeon “William A. Spence/Spince” who was at one time attached to the 47th VA Inf. (Brockenbrough’s Brigade). Link
Link
Stewart Johnson’s Div (?)  Hospital: Fairfield Road The only surgeon listed in the CWSS in the AONV with a similar surname is “William F. Steuart/Stewart”) who was at one time attached to the 3rd NC Inf. (Johnson’s Division). Link
Link
Warren (?) 11th or 26th N.C. Inf. (?)  Hospital: Chambersburg Road There is no surgeon listed in the CWSS in the 11th NC Inf. with a similar surname.  The only surgeon listed in the CWSS in the 26th NC Inf. with a similar surname is “Lewellen P. Warren”. Link
Warren, L. P. Brigade Surgeon, 52nd N.C. Inf.  Hospital: Pettigrew’s Brigade The only surgeon listed in the CWSS in the 52nd NC Inf. with a similar surname is “H. Warren”.  The only confederate surgeon listed in the CWSS with a similar surname and the initials of “L.P.” was “Lewellen P. Warren” who was at one time attached to the 26th NC Inf. (see above). Link
Link
Watson, Major Alabama  Hospital: Dr. M.L. Stoever house The only surgeon listed in the CWSS  from an Alabama regiment with a similar surname was “Benjamin F. Watkins” who at one time was attached to the 44th AL Inf. Link

* In the context of this article, “in the AOP” and “in the AONV” means in units of the respective armies which were at Gettysburg.

** All name comparisons are made phonetically.



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Experience history and enjoy the ride.



Also next week…

Capt. Thomas F. Reid (1963)

Capt. Thomas F. Reid (1963)

In addition to the 150th anniversary of the Gettysburg Address, next week marks the 50th anniversary of JFK’s assassination. My father-in-law, Tom Reid, was in charge of JFK’s state funeral at Arlington National Cemetery.

Now 76 years old and coping with Parkinson’s, Tom is interviewed in this video about the events of those tumultuous days. He gives his first-hand account and those of more than 20 other members of The Old Guard who participated in the funeral in his recent book, Their Finest Hour.

We love you, Tom. Thank you for your service to the country!



The Gettysburg Census of 1860 - Part 2

census1860As mentioned earlier, I’ve transcribed the 1860 U.S. Federal Census of Gettysburg and will include all of those people in a future version of Pocket Gettysburg.

In addition to the previous analysis of the census, here is some interesting financial data about the residents of the Borough in 1860…

Value of Real Estate
Males Females All People
White $799,500 87.9% $100,800 11.1% $900,300 99.0%
Black $3,500 0.4% $2,650 0.3% $6,150 0.7%
Mulatto $3,400 0.4% $0 0.0% $3,400 0.4%
All Races $806,400 88.6% $103,450 11.4% $909,850 100.0%
Value of Personal Estate
Males Females All People
White $545,335 91.2% $49,125 8.2% $594,460 99.5%
Black $1,210 0.2% $400 0.1% $1,610 0.3%
Mulatto $1,600 0.3% $0 0.0% $1,600 0.3%
All Races $548,145 91.7% $49,525 8.3% $597,670 100.0%
Value of Total Estate
Males Females All People
White $1,344,835 89.2% $149,925 9.9% $1,494,760 99.2%
Black $4,710 0.3% $3,050 0.2% $7,760 0.5%
Mulatto $5,000 0.3% $0 0.0% $5,000 0.3%
All Races $1,354,545 89.9% $152,975 10.1% $1,507,520 100.0%

If you look at just the heads of households….

Male Heads of Households
# % Average Real Estate Average Personal Estate Average Total Estate
White 347 82.4% $2,103.17 $1,356.08 $3,459.25
Black 17 4.0% $164.71 $55.88 $220.59
Mulatto 3 0.7% $1,033.33 $283.33 $1,316.67
All Races 367 87.2% $2,004.63 $1,287.08 $3,291.72
Female Heads of Households
# % Average Real Estate Average Personal Estate Average Total Estate
White 44 10.5% $1,165.34 $233.18 $1398.52
Black 9 2.1% $261.11 $33.33 $294.44
Mulatto 1 0.2% $0.00 $0.00 $0.00
All Races 54 12.8% $993.06 $195.56 $1188.61
All Heads of Households
# % Average Real Estate Average Personal Estate Average Total Estate
White 391 92.9% $1,997.63 $1,229.72 $3227.35
Black 26 6.2% $198.08 $48.08 $246.15
Mulatto 4 1.0% $775.00 $212.50 $987.5
All Races 421 100.0% $1,874.88 $1,147.08 $3021.96

Among other interesting conclusions here is that the value of the combined estates of all blacks and mulattoes in the Borough was less than that of four average households headed by white males.

The top 10 estates were owned by…

Given Surname Occupation Value of Total Estate
George Swope President, Gettysburg Bank $86,000
Samuel S. Schmucker Professor, Theological Seminary $32,800
Mary Myers $31,000
Samuel Fahnestock Merchant $30,000
Robert McCurdy President, Gettysburg R.R. $26,500
Joseph Wible Wagon maker $23,000
William A Duncan Attorney-at-Law $23,000
Moses McClean Attorney-at-Law $22,500
David Zeigler Merchant $21,000
Henry Rupp Tanner $20,500

And when looking at just real estate…

Given Surname Occupation Value of Real Estate
Mary Myers $30,000
Robert McCurdy President, Gettysburg R.R. $23,000
Joseph Wible Wagon maker $20,500
Henry Culp Farmer $18,000
Moses McClean Attorney-at-Law $16,500
William A Duncan Attorney-at-Law $15,000
David Zeigler Merchant $15,000
Andrew Polly Tinner $15,000
James Paxton $15,000
Samuel S. Schmucker Professor, Theological Seminary $14,300

That is, due apparently to a substantial inheritance, a woman, Mary Myers, was the single largest landholder and the third richest person in the Borough!

Abraham Cole, a 40-year-old Methodist clergyman, owned the most land ($1000) and had the largest total estate ($1100) among black residents of the Borough.

Here’s a list of the 25 most common surnames in the Borough as of 1860…

Culp 73
Little 62
Zeigler 61
Sheads 32
Tate 29
Myers 27
Gilbert 26
Buehler 25
Warren 25
McCreary 23
Martin 22
Jacobs 20
Tipton 20
Codori 19
Fahnestock 18
Kitzmiller 17
Scott 17
Snyder 17
Wisotsky 17
Devan 16
Minnigh 16
Stuck 16
Welty 16
Degroft 15
McElroy 15

Lastly, you can have your own copy of the 1860 U.S. Federal Census of Gettysburg. I’ve uploaded a fully-searchable PDF file with my transcription here.

Bob Velke
SegTours, LLC



The Gettysburg Census of 1860

census1860I’ve transcribed the entire 1860 Federal Census of Gettysburg in the ongoing effort to learn more about the residents of the Borough at the time of the battle.  (I might even add all of the residents in a future version of our smartphone app, Pocket Gettysburg.)

The transcription process was time-consuming because I frequently found myself asking questions like “What the heck is a ‘mantua maker’?”, “What’s a ’saddle tree maker’?”, and “What’s the difference between a domestic and a servant?”  So, of course, I got sidetracked while looking for those answers.  But it has all been great fun and a quite a learning experience!

The census was taken over the first 18 days of June, 1860.  Here’s the breakdown on some of the types of data that were recorded:

Total People 2390
Number of dwellings 421
Number of families 474
Avg. size of household 5.68 people


Sex and Race
Male Male% Female Female% Total Total Percent
White 1109 46.40% 1103 46.15% 2202 92.13%
Black 69 2.89% 88 3.68% 157 6.57%
Mulatto 16 0.67% 15 0.63% 31 1.30%
Total 1194 49.96% 1206 50.46% 2390 100


Average Age
Male 23.93
Female 25.84
Total 24.89


Age Distribution
Age Male Male% Female Female% Total Total Percent
0-10 347 14.52% 310 12.97% 657 27.49%
11-20 272 11.38% 255 10.67% 527 22.05%
21-30 197 8.24% 237 9.92% 434 18.16%
31-40 124 5.19% 130 5.44% 254 10.63%
41-50 101 4.23% 118 4.94% 219 9.16%
51-60 90 3.77% 84 3.51% 174 7.28%
61-70 37 1.55% 48 2.01% 85 3.56%
71-80 13 0.54% 12 0.50% 25 1.05%
81-90 3 0.13% 10 0.42% 13 0.54%
91+ 0 0.00% 2 0.08% 2 0.08%


Other
Count Percent
Married within the year 38 1.59%
Attended school with the year 578 24.18%
Over 20yrs and cannot read or write 53 2.22%
Deaf 1 0.04%
Convict/Prisoner 5 0.21%
Foreign born 171 7.15%


Age Distribution of People Who Were Married Within the Year
Age Male Male% Female Female% Total Percent
17-20 1 2.63% 4 10.53% 5 13.16%
21-30 9 23.68% 13 34.21% 22 57.89%
31-40 5 13.16% 0 0.00% 5 13.16%
41-50 2 5.26% 2 5.26% 4 10.53%
51-60 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00%
61-70 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00%
71-80 2 5.26% 0 0.00% 2 5.26%
Total 19 50.00% 19 50.00% 38 100.00%


Age Distribution of People Who Attended School Within the Year
Age Male Male% Female Female% Total Percent
4-10 150 25.95% 123 21.28% 273 47.23%
11-20 164 28.37% 131 22.66% 295 51.04%
21-30 7 1.21% 2 0.35% 9 1.56%
31-40 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00%
41-50 0 0.00% 0 0.00% 0 0.00%
51-60 0 0.00% 1 0.17% 1 0.17%
Total 321 55.54% 257 44.46% 578 100.00%

Place of Birth
Count Percent
Pennsylvania 1965 82.22%
Maryland 188 7.87%
Germany/Bavaria/Prussia, etc. 132 5.52%
Virginia 21 0.88%
Ireland 19 0.79%
New Jersey 12 0.50%
France 10 0.42%
Ohio 10 0.42%
New York 8 0.33%
Delaware 4 0.17%
England 4 0.17%
Indiana 3 0.13%
Connecticut 2 0.08%
Holland 2 0.08%
Illinois 2 0.08%
Canada 1 0.04%
English Channel 1 0.04%
Georgia 1 0.04%
Massachusetts 1 0.04%
Missouri 1 0.04%
New Hampshire 1 0.04%
Scotland 1 0.04%
Switzerland 1 0.04%

As is generally known, coach making was the biggest industry in Gettysburg in 1860.  When you count all of the coach-related trades like wheelwrights and coach lace weavers, it represented a little more than 11% of the work force in the Borough.  Of course, that population is limited to the 672 people (28.12%) whose occupation is specifically listed in the census. For many people (including 16% of males between the age of 18 and 60), no occupation was listed — so some occupations were probably under-represented (e.g., farmers).  Lastly, it is acknowledged that the grouping of occupations into industries is somewhat subjective.

But with those caveats, here are the top 10 industries in Gettysburg in 1860:


Industry Count Percent Includes
Coach Making 75 11.16% Coach/Wagon Maker, Coach Painter, Coach/Carriage Trimmer, Coach Smith, Coach Lace Weaver, Body Maker, Wheelwright, Carriage Seller
Service 73 10.86% Domestic, Housekeeper, Help, Waiter, Coach Driver
Clothing 72 10.71% Tailor(ess), Seamstress, Hatter/Milliner, Shoemaker/Cordwainer, Mantua Maker, Clothier
Construction 62 9.23% Carpenter, Plasterer, Stone Cutter, Stone Mason, Brick Maker/Layer/Carrier, Mason
Labor 55 8.18% Day Laborer, Hireling
Equine 48 7.14% Blacksmith, Harness Maker, Saddle/SaddleTree Maker, Livery Keeper, Hostler
Education 22 3.27% Teacher, Professor
Merchant 21 3.13%
Furniture 18 2.68% Cabinet Maker, Chair Maker, Furniture Dealer
Clerk 18 2.68%

As for specific occupations, these are the most common among men, including their average estate (real estate + personal estate):


Occupation Count Avg Estate
Day Laborer 53 $319
Coach Maker 33 $644
Blacksmith 30 $752
Shoemaker 29 $622
Carpenter 23 $470
Merchant 21 $10747
Clerk 18 $272
Farmer 17 $5541
Printer 14 $60
Cabinet Maker 13 $790

(For this purpose, each category includes journeymen, apprentices, and masters).

These are the most common occupations among women:


Occupation Count Average Estate
Domestic 56 $37
Mantua Maker 10 $317
Tailoress 9 $55
Teacher 9 $200
Milliner 8 $325
Housekeeper 7 0
Help 5 0
Nurse 3 $33
Seamstress 3 $41
Laundress 2 $137

Oh, and the difference between a domestic and a servant?  Domestics were generally white (44 of 50 or 88%) and servants were generally black (5 of 7 or 71%).

I’ll post more analysis with respect to individual residents once I finish cross-checking name spellings against other records.

Bob Velke
SegTours, LLC



SegTours in USA Today!

Segway Tours of Gettysburg is prominently featured today on the front page of the Travel section of USA Today! LBG Charlie Fennell talks about Segway tours of the battlefield and the challenges that the borough will face on the 150th anniversary. Our own Meghan Ogley is also featured in photos and video!

Here’s the full article and video.



Gettysburg Campaign - Medals of Honor

How many men were awarded the Medal Of Honor for their action in the Gettysburg Campaign?

That question was raised on the Facebook Page “Test Your Knowledge On The Battle of Gettysburg”.

It is traditionally said that 63 Medals of Honor were awarded for service in the Battle of Gettysburg, July 1-3, 1863. That includes two for actions in Fairfield and Millerstown, PA on July 3rd.1

But by almost all accounts, the Gettysburg Campaign started a month earlier, on June 3rd, as Robert E. Lee slipped away from Fredericksburg, VA and headed toward the Blue Ridge Mountains.

Historians commonly say that the Gettysburg Campaign ended with the Battle of Falling Waters on July 14th when the last Confederate brigade re-crossed the Potomac River2. But the National Park Service infers that it ended at the close of the Battle of Manassas Gap, VA on July 24th.3 The Official Records, however, say that the campaign ended on August 1 with the (2nd) battle at Brandy Station, VA.4

For the sake of completeness, therefore, we will use the range June 3 - August 1, 1863 for the Gettysburg Campaign and list the 74 recipients of the MOH during that period as follows:

# Name Unit Action
1 PMus. John T. Patterson 122nd OH Inf. 14 Jun 1863
Winchester, VA
2 Pvt. Elbridge Robinson Co. C, 122nd OH Inf. 14 Jun 1863
Winchester, VA
3 2Lt. James R. Durham Co. E, 12th WV Inf. 14 Jun 1863
Winchester, VA
4 Pvt. Nathan M. Hallock Co. K, 124th NY Inf. 15 Jun 1863
Bristoe Station, VA
5 Col. Louis P. Di Cesnola 4th NY Cav. 17 Jun 1863
Aldie, VA
6 Pvt. Thomas Burke Co. A, 5th NY Cav. 30 Jun 1863
Hanover, PA5
7 Sgt. James M. Rutter Co. C, 143rd PA Inf. 1 Jul 1863
Gettysburg, PA
8 LtCol. Henry S. Huidekoper 150th PA Inf. 1 Jul 1863
Gettysburg, PA
9 Cpl. J. Monroe Reisinger Co. H, 150th PA Inf. 1 Jul 1863
Gettysburg, PA
10 Capt. Francis Irsch Co. D, 45th NY Inf. 1 Jul 1863
Gettysburg, PA
11 Cpl. Francis A. Waller Co. I, 6th WI Inf. 1 Jul 1863
Gettysburg, PA
12 Mus. Richard Enderlin Co. B, 73rd OH Inf. 1 Jul 1863
Gettysburg, PA
13 Sgt. Jefferson Coates Co. H, 7th WI Inf. 1 Jul 1863
Gettysburg, PA
14 1Sgt. Edward L. Gilligan Co. E, 88th PA Inf. 1 Jul 1863
Gettysburg, PA
15 Maj. Alfred J. Sellers 90th PA Inf. 1 Jul 1863
Gettysburg, PA
16 Sgt. Harvey M. Munsell Co. A, 99th PA Inf. 1 Jul 1863
Gettysburg, PA
17 Cpl. Harrison Clark Co. E, 125th NY Inf. 2 Jul 1863
Gettysburg, PA
18 Capt. John Lonergan Co. A, 13th VT Inf. 2 Jul 1863
Gettysburg, PA
19 Capt. James Pipes Co. A, 140th PA Inf. 2 Jul 1863
Gettysburg, PA6
20 Lt. James J. Purman Co. A, 140th PA Inf. 2 Jul 1863
Gettysburg, PA
21 2Lt. Edward M. Knox 15th NY Battery 2 Jul 1863
Gettysburg, PA
22 Capt. James Parke Postles Co. A, 1st DE Inf. 2 Jul 1863
Gettysburg, PA
23 Cpl. Nathaniel M. Allen Co. B, 1st MA Inf. 2 Jul 1863
Gettysburg, PA
24 Col. Joshua L. Chamberlain 20th ME Inf. 2 Jul 1863
Gettysburg, PA
25 Sgt. Andrew J. Tozier Co. I, 20th ME Inf. 2 Jul 1863
Gettysburg, PA
26 Capt. John B. Fassett Co. F, 23rd PA Inf. 2 Jul 1863
Gettysburg, PA
27 Pvt. Charles Stacey Co. D, 55th OH Inf. 2 Jul 1863
Gettysburg, PA
28 Cpl. Thaddeus S. Smith Co. E, 6th PA Res. Inf. 2 Jul 1863
Gettysburg, PA
29 Cpl. Chester S. Furman Co. A, 6th PA Res. 2 Jul 1863
Gettysburg, PA
30 Sgt. John W. Hart Co. D, 6th PA Res. 2 Jul 1863
Gettysburg, PA
31 Sgt. Wallace W. Johnson Co. G, 6th PA Res. 2 Jul 1863
Gettysburg, PA
32 Sgt. George W. Mears Co. A, 6th PA Res. 2 Jul 1863
Gettysburg, PA
33 Cpl. J. Levi Roush Co. D, 6th PA Res. 2 Jul 1863
Gettysburg, PA
34 Sgt. Thomas Horan Co. E, 72nd NY Inf. 2 Jul 1863
Gettysburg, PA
35 Sgt. Hugh Carey Co. E, 82nd NY Inf. 2 Jul 1863
Gettysburg, PA
36 Bglr. Charles W. Reed 9th Ind. Batt., MA Light Art. 2 Jul 1863
Gettysburg, PA
37 1Sgt. George W. Roosevelt Co. K. 26th PA Inf. 2 Jul 1863
Gettysburg, PA7
38 Pvt. Casper R. Carlisle Co. F, Ind. PA Light Art. 2 Jul 1863
Gettysburg, PA
39 MG Daniel E. Sickles U.S. Volunteers 2 Jul 1863
Gettysburg, PA
40 Cpl. William H. Raymond Co. A, 108th NY Inf. 3 Jul 1863
Gettysburg, PA
41 Capt. Morris, Jr. Brown Co. A, 126th NY Inf. 3 Jul 1863
Gettysburg, PA
42 Sgt. George H. Dore Co. D, 126th NY Inf. 3 Jul 1863
Gettysburg, PA
43 Pvt. Jerry Wall Co. B, 126th NY Inf. 3 Jul 1863
Gettysburg, PA
44 2Lt. George G. Benedict Co. C, 12th VT Inf. 3 Jul 1863
Gettysburg, PA
45 Pvt. Elijah W. Bacon Co. F, 14th CT Inf. 3 Jul 1863
Gettysburg, PA
46 Cpl. Christopher Flynn Co. K, 14th CT Inf. 3 Jul 1863
Gettysburg, PA
47 SgtMaj. William B. Hincks 14th CT Inf. 3 Jul 1863
Gettysburg, PA
48 Col. Wheelock G. Veazey 16th VT Inf. 3 Jul 1863
Gettysburg, PA
49 Cpl. Joseph H. De Castro Co. I, 19th MA Inf. 3 Jul 1863
Gettysburg, PA
50 ColSgt. Benjamin F. Falls Co. A, 19th MA Inf. 3 Jul 1863
Gettysburg, PA
51 Sgt. Benjamin H. Jellison Co. C, 19th MA Inf. 3 Jul 1863
Gettysburg, PA
52 Maj. Edmund Rice 19th MA Inf. 3 Jul 1863
Gettysburg, PA
53 Pvt. John H. Robinson Co. I, 19th MA Inf. 3 Jul 1863
Gettysburg, PA
54 Pvt. John B. Mayberry Co. F, 1st DE Inf. 3 Jul 1863
Gettysburg, PA
55 Pvt. Bernard McCarren Co. C, 1st DE Inf. 3 Jul 1863
Gettysburg, PA
56 Cpl. Henry D. O’Brien Co. E, 1st MN Inf. 3 Jul 1863
Gettysburg, PA
57 Pvt. Marshall Sherman Co. C, 1st MN Inf. 3 Jul 1863
Gettysburg, PA
58 Sgt. James B. Thompson Co. G, 1st PA Rifles 3 Jul 1863
Gettysburg, PA
59 Maj. William Wells 1st VT Cav. 3 Jul 1863
Gettysburg, PA
60 Pvt. Oliver P. Rood Co. B, 20th IN Inf. 3 Jul 1863
Gettysburg, PA
61 Capt. William E. Miller Co. H, 3rd PA Cav. 3 Jul 1863
Gettysburg, PA
62 Sgt. James Wiley Co. B, 59th NY Inf. 3 Jul 1863
Gettysburg, PA
63 Sgt. Martin Schwenk8 Co. B, 6th U.S. Cav. 3 Jul 1863
Millerstown, PA
64 Pvt. John E. Clopp Co. F, 71st PA Inf. 3 Jul 1863
Gettysburg, PA
65 Cpl. John Miller Co. G, 8th OH Inf. 3 Jul 1863
Gettysburg, PA
66 Pvt. James Richmond Co. F, 8th OH Inf. 3 Jul 1863
Gettysburg, PA
67 Sgt. Frederick Fuger Battery A, 4th U.S. Art. 3 Jul 1863
Gettysburg, PA
68 Pvt. George C. Platt Troop H, 6th U.S. Cav. 3 Jul 1863
Fairfield, PA
69 BG Alexander S. Webb U.S. Volunteers 3 Jul 1863
Gettysburg, PA
70 Maj. Charles E. Capehart 1st WV Cav. 4 Jul 1863
Monterey Mt, PA
71 1Sgt. Charles M. Holton Co. A, 7th MI Cav. 14 Jul 1863
Falling Waters, MD
72 1Lt. Carle A. Woodruff 2nd U.S. Art. 24 Jul 1863
Newby’s C.R., VA9
73 Capt. Smith H. Hastings Co. M, 5th MI Cav. 24 Jul 1863
Newby’s C.R., VA9
74 1Lt. John W. Clark 6th VT Inf. 28 Jul 1863
Warrenton, VA


Sources
- Congressional Medal of Honor Society (CMOHS)
- National Park Service

Notes
1It does not include 1Lt. Alonzo Cushing whose Medal of Honor has been recommended but not approved as of this writing (12 May 2013).
2Coddington, Edwin B., “The Gettysburg Campaign: A Study in Command” (New York: Touchstone, 1997), p. vii.
3Civil War Battle Summaries by Campaign.
4OR s1, v27, pt2, pg 5-7.
5The record at the Congressional Medal of Honor Society (and apparently the citation itself) says Hanover Courthouse, VA but the 5th NY Cavalry was in Hanover, PA on this date. The Battle of Hanover Courthouse, VA was on 27 May 1862.
6Also for service at Reams Station, VA on 25 August 1864.
7Also for service at Bull Run, VA on 30 August 1862.
8AKA Martin, George
9Newby’s Cross Roads, also known as Battle Mountain, Amissville, VA.

Related posts on this blog:
1st Lt. Alonzo Cushing - One Step Closer to the Medal of Honor, 11 March 2010.
Fun Facts about the Medal of Honor, 14 March 2010.



Pocket Gettysburg for Android (and iPhone/iPad)

Pocket GettysburgPRESS RELEASE

Pocket Gettysburg for Android, iPhone, and iPad

Gettysburg, Pennsylvania – 30 April 2013 – SegTours, LLC announces the long-awaited release of the Android version of Pocket Gettysburg, the popular smartphone app for researchers and visitors to the Gettysburg National Military Park. In this 150th year after the battle, technology finally makes it easy to learn about the monuments, military organizations, and people that are connected to this critical battle of the American Civil War.

Like the Apple version of Pocket Gettysburg before it, the new release for Android phones and tablets includes a virtual encyclopedia of information about the battle in three integrated and searchable databases.

First, Pocket Gettysburg includes a massive catalog of the monuments, plaques, wayside markers, and historical markers on the Gettysburg battlefield and throughout greater Adams County, Pennsylvania, including their locations, full inscriptions, and photographs. An integrated map lets the user navigate the area while optionally tracking his own position among those monuments.*

Then there is a record of each of the 860+ military units (regiments, brigades, divisions, corps, and armies) that were present, noting the unit’s succession of commanders as they were killed, wounded or captured over the course of the three-day battle. The database also includes the strengths and losses of each unit, the types and number of cannon in each battery, and a detailed history of each regiment for the duration of the war, among other types of data. An “Order of Battle” details the command structure and organization of those military units within the Union and Confederate armies.

Finally, there is a database of more than 45,000 of the soldiers and citizens who played a part in the battle, including the commanders at each level plus the name and rank of every person who is mentioned on a battlefield monument. In many cases, the app also includes photos and biographical information about those people. For the first time, researchers also have an easy way to search for any people who were buried by name in the Soldier’s National Cemetery, including its Annex.

The databases are not only searchable; they are painstakingly cross-linked with one another. So, for instance, researchers can easily find a list and map of all of the monuments that are related to a specific military unit. Or conversely, the app can be used to find more information about the military unit(s) and people that are mentioned on a given monument. Web links frequently point to resources for further reading.

“Pocket Gettysburg is a unique and extremely useful app for both on-the-field use and as a research tool,” said Les Fowler, Licensed Battlefield Guide. “It is packed with an amazing amount of detail,” he added, “placing the equivalent of a very large stack of books in the palm of your hand. I will use it every day that I’m on the field.”

“We are very pleased with the popularity of Pocket Gettysburg for iPhone and iPad,” said Bob Velke, President of SegTours, LLC, “and we are happy to reward the patience of Android users with this new release.” He went on to say, “It is especially gratifying to see the app embraced as a reference tool by many of the undisputed experts on the battlefield, the Licensed Battlefield Guides.”

Pocket Gettysburg is available from the Google Play and iTunes app stores. A “Lite” version is also available for visitors to the Park who want to navigate the map and monument database without the extra details about military units and people that are of special interest to researchers.

*Some mapping features require a GPS-enabled device.

About the company:
Segway Tours and Rides of Gettysburg (SegTours, LLC) was established in 2008 to provide tours of the Gettysburg battlefield using Segway Personal Transporters™ and Licensed Battlefield Guides. For each year since its inception, the company has provided the highest-rated tour on the battlefield, according to the popular travel site, TripAdvisor.com.

Contact:
SegTours, LLC
www.SegTours.com
pocketgb@segtours.com
22 Springs Avenue
Gettysburg, PA 17325
717-253-7987

###



Madame Clara O’Rorke

On 25 January 2013, a post on Michael Waricher’s Battlefield Perspectives Facebook page showed a photo of Colonel Patrick Henry O’Rorke’s tombstone in Rochester, NY.

Col. O’Rorke commanded the 140th New York Infantry (3B, 2D, 5C, AOP) and died on the second day at Gettysburg as he famously led a bayonet charge down the southwest slope of Little Round Top.

In the resulting Facebook discussion, Licensed Battlefield Guide Deb Novotny asked if anyone knew the burial location of Col. O’Rorke’s widow. I did a little research and this is what I found:

Madame Clara O'Rorke (click to enlarge)

Madame Clara O'Rorke (click to enlarge)

“Madame Clara O’Rorke”1 (née Clarissa Wadsworth Bishop2) was born in Rochester, NY on 29 March 18373, daughter of Edward and Helena/Hanna Bishop.4 She married Patrick Henry O’Rorke at St. Bridget’s Church, Rochester, NY, on 9 July 18625. Just a week before their first anniversary, Colonel O’Rorke was killed at the Battle of Gettysburg. On 14 September 1863, Mrs. O’Rorke applied for and received a widow’s pension of $30.00 per month.6 She took her vows and entered the Society of the Sacred Heart on 19 March 1865,7 serving later as Mother Superior in convents in Detroit, Michigan, Albany, NY, and lastly Providence, RI.

Academy of the Sacred Heart (click to enlarge)

Academy of the Sacred Heart (click to enlarge)

Madame O’Rorke (photo above)8 died on 18 Feb 18939 and was buried in the cemetery of the Convent of the Sacred Heart, Elmhurst10, (736 Smith Street11) in Providence, RI. In 1960, the convent sold the 29-acre12 property and moved the convent and associated school (“Academy of the Sacred Heart, Elmhurst”13; later “Elmhurst Academy”14) to Portsmouth, RI.15 The original buildings in Elmhurst (photo on left)16 were razed and the remains of those interred in the cemetery were moved to the Boston area.17 The original convent area is now the home of a modern medical center.18

Madame O’Rorke was reinterred in St. Joseph Cemetery,19 West Roxbury, Massachusetts, Field of the Sacred Heart, Lot #1, grave #36.20

Addendum:
Pursuant to our original post, LBG Deb Novotny visited St. Joseph Cemetery on 7 Apr 2013 and provided this photo of Madame Clara O’Rorke’s tombstone:
clara_ororke













Notes and sources:
1 “Sadliers’ Catholic Directory, Almanac and Ordo, For the Year of Our Lord 1883 with Reports of the Dioceses in the United States, British America, Ireland, England, and Scotland”, 51st Annual Publication (New York: D. & J. Sadlier and Co., 1883), p292.
2 Despite a variety of online sources which identify her as “Clarrisa” or “Clarrissa,” it was spelled “Clarissa” on her marriage record and in her own hand on her widow’s pension application.

Signature from her pension application (digitally cleaned to remove surrounding text)

Signature from her pension application (digitally cleaned to remove surrounding text)


3 “Annual Letters of the Society of the Sacred Heart,” 1892-1893, Part II, pg 270.
4 Her parents are recorded as Edward and Hannah in the 1860 census but the marriage record (translated from Latin) lists them as Edward and Helena.
5 Marriage Record, St. Bridget’s Church, Rochester, NY, 9 July 1862.
6 Federal Pension File, Patrick Henry O’Rorke, Widow’s pension application #32785 (14 Sep 1863), certificate #6885.
7 “Annual Letters of the Society of the Sacred Heart,” ibid.
8 Michael Pera, Assistant Archivist, Society of the Sacred Heart U.S. Province Archives, St. Louis, MO.
9 “Rhode Island, Deaths, 1630-1930” on Ancestry.com. Next of kin is listed as “Jane Orne”.
10 United States. Army, 155th Pennsylvania Infantry Regiment, “Under the Maltese Cross, Antietam to Appomattox: The Loyal Uprising in Western Pennsylvania, 1861-1865” (Pittsburg [sic]: The 155th Regimental Association, 1910), p738.
11 Providence City Directory, 1892.
12 Steiger, Ernst, “Steiger’s Educational Directory for 1878” (New York: E. Steiger, 1878).
13 “The Official Catholic Directory,” (New York : P.J. Kenedy & Sons, 1952), p521.
14 Portsmouth Patch Newsletter, http://portsmouth.patch.com/blog_posts/the-glen-a-history-of-the-land
15 Portsmouth Patch Newsletter, http://portsmouth.patch.com/blog_posts/the-glen-elmhurst-academy
16 Photo: http://www.athomeinprovidence.com/2012/05/green-dreams-elmhurst/mytest-cropped_449/
17 Sister Catherine, of St. Pius V Catholic Church (Elmhurst Ave, Providence, RI), who grew up in the area and whose grandfather was the caretaker of the convent grounds; interviewed 28 Jan 2012.
18 Google Maps, lat: 41.838427 lon:-71.435423
19 Michael Pera, ibid.; interviewed 30 Jan 2013.
20 Holyhood Cemetery Association (St. Joseph’s Cemetery), 990 LaGrange Street, West Roxbury, MA 02132.



Merry Christmas and Happy Holidays!


Everyone is discovering that Segway Personal Transporters(tm) are the most fun and efficient way to travel!

At Segway Tours and Rides of Gettysburg, we wish you a joyous holiday season. Although we have no scheduled hours until March, we ARE open by reservation. So let’s hope for some mild winter days so we can take a glide around the battlefield together.

Of course, gift certificates are always available and make a great gift! Just call us at 717-253-7987 and we can mail them to you - or email them so that you can print them yourself.

Merry Christmas!

(Cartoon used by permission of Casey Shaw. Thanks, Casey!)